Butterflies and Moths of North America

collecting and sharing data about Lepidoptera

Ozark Swallowtail
Papilio joanae Heitzman, 1973

Family: Papilionidae
Subfamily: Papilioninae
Identification: Nearly identical to Black Swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes). Face is yellow; black pupil in eyespot trailing edge of hindwing is not centered and touches inner edge of windwing.
Wing Span: 3 1/4 - 4 1/16 inches (8.2 - 10.2 cm).
Life History: Females lay eggs singly on the host plant, and newly-hatched caterpillars eat the leaves and reproductive parts. Chrysalids overwinter
Flight: Two flights of adults (April to September).
Caterpillar Hosts: Yellow pimpernal, meadow parsnip, and golden alexander in the parsley family (Apiaceae).
Adult Food: Nectar of flowers such as rose verbena, wood betony, puccoon, and false garlic.
Habitat: Cedar blades and woodlands.
Range: Missouri, northern Arkansas, and western Kentucky. Comments: A relative of the Old World Swallowtail.
Conservation: Species of concern with small limited range. Alien weeds such as garlic mustard may be reducing habitat quality.
NCGR: G3 - Very rare or local throughout its range or found locally in a restricted range.
Management Needs: None noted.
Comments: NULL