Butterflies and Moths of North America

collecting and sharing data about Lepidoptera

Guatemalan Cracker
Hamadryas guatemalena (H.W. Bates, 1864)

Family: Nymphalidae
Subfamily: Biblidinae
Identification: Upper surface is patterned with brown, gray, and tan; outer half of forewing is lighter and there is a red bar in the cell. Upper hindwing has eyespots with a mottled brown and white center circled in blue, then a wide black ring, and outside of that, another blue ring. Underside is tan and white; forewing with a large white spot below apex, hindwing with submarginal black rings.
Wing Span: 3 - 3 7/8 inches (7.6 - 9.8 cm).
Life History: Eggs are laid singly underneath mature leaves of the host plant. Adults perch on tree trunks head downward with their wings spread open; males await females and make a cracking noise when they dart out at other insects. Before dark, adults gather on a single tree, then disperse to roost in nearby trees or shrubs.
Flight: All year long in the tropics; August in South Texas.
Caterpillar Hosts: Vine Dalechampia in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).
Adult Food: Sap, dung, and rotting fruit.
Habitat: Tropical forest edges, stream valleys, and cutover areas.
Range: Costa Rica north through Central America to Mexico. A rare stray to the lower Rio Grande Valley of South Texas.
Conservation: Not required for a rare tropical stray.
NCGR: G4 - Apparently secure globally, though it might be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management Needs: None reported.
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