Identification: Dull and dark. Males smoky orange; females smoky brown and pale orange; both with blurred markings.
Wing Span: 1 1/2 - 1 3/4 inches (3.8 - 4.5 cm).
Life History: Males patrol near the host plant, close to the ground on hillsides. Two years are required for development from egg to adult. First-stage caterpillars hibernate the first winter; older caterpillars the second winter.
Flight: One brood from late July-early August.
Caterpillar Hosts: Probably alpine avens (Dryas octopetala).
Adult Food: Flower nectar.
Habitat: Barren, windswept alpine ridges.
Range: Uncommon. British Columbia and Alberta south to northern Washington and northern Montana.
Conservation: Populations in the contiguous United States are extremely limited, occur on public lands, and should be conserved.
NCGR: G4 - Apparently secure globally, though it might be quite rare in parts of its range, especially at the periphery.
Management Needs: None reported.