Butterflies and Moths of North America

collecting and sharing data about Lepidoptera

Contributors to the NPWRC Dataset

In 1995, a team of scientists at the USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) conceived and developed two sites: Butterflies of the U.S. and Moths of the U.S. These separate sites were inspired by paper atlases created by Paul Opler, Harry Pavulaan, Ray Stanford, and their many cooperators. The NPWRC dataset is a big dataset available through the Butterflies and Moths of North America website.

Contributors of Butterfly and/or Moth Photographs

Hundreds of individuals provided photographs to the NPWRC datasets and many hours were spent formatting and standardizing them.

  • Alana Edwards, E-mail: edwards_alana(at)hotmail.com
  • Benton Basham
  • Bill Welch, http://siscom.net/~wwelch/
  • Brent Lossing
  • Bruce Hanson, US Geological Survey, Jamestown, North Dakota, E-mail: bruce_hanson(at)usgs.gov
  • Carmen Perez Garcia
  • Chuck Harp, Littleton, Colorado
  • David Powell, Brandon, Florida, E-mail: vireo(at)vireos.com, http://www.vireos.com/butterflies.html
  • Don Lafontaine
  • Doug Johnson, E-mail: catsmeow(at)core.com
  • Douglas Aguillard, San Diego, California
  • Elizabeth Cavazos
  • Ellie Thompson, E-mail: LagunaElli(at)aol.com
  • Erik Runquist, E-mail: erunquist(at)hotmail.com
  • Evi Buckner, Loveland, Colorado, E-mail: paulopler(at)comcast.net
  • F.R. Hedges
  • G. R. Carner
  • G.W. Lasley
  • Gary A. Becker, E-mail: garyabecker(at)msn.com
  • Gary Marrone, Fort Pierre, South Dakota, E-mail: gmarrone(at)aol.com
  • George O. Krizek, Washington, D.C. Phone: 202-234-2400
  • Harry Zirlin, E-mail: hzirlin(at)debevoise.com
  • J. Riggenbach
  • Jane Austin, US Geological Survey, Jamestown, North Dakota, E-mail: jane_austin(at)usgs.gov
  • Jane Ruffin
  • Jay Cossey, London, Canada, E-mail: jayc(at)nettaxi.com, http://www.images.on.ca
  • Jim A. Ebner, E-mail: JAE103030(at)cs.com
  • Jim Brock
  • John Lane
  • Julie Clark, La Canada, California
  • Karen Wilson
  • Kurt Adolfson, White Bear Lake, Minnesota, E-mail: adol0002(at)juno.com
  • Laura Stockton
  • Leroy Simon, Belleview, Florida
  • Linda Cooper, Haines City, Florida
  • Lori M. Wilson, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Lynn & Gene Monroe, Lyons, Colorado
  • Matthew Faulkner, Oakland, California, E-mail: matthew_faulkner(at)yahoo.com
  • Mel Henzler, Findlay, Ohio
  • Mickey Alesch Collier, Graphic Artist/Photographer, E-mail: spider_(at)tds.net
  • Mike Quinn
  • Neil Dankert
  • Nick V. Grishin, Dallas, Texas, E-mail: grishin(at)chop.swmed.edu
  • Nile Oldham, Ijamsville, Maryland, E-mail: nile(at)velocecorp.net
  • Paul A. Opler, Loveland, Colorado, E-mail: paulopler(at)comcast.net, http://www.webaccess.net/~paulevi
  • Peter Hall
  • Peter J. Bryant, Irvine, California, E-mail: pjbryant(at)uci.edu
  • Randy Emmitt, Rougemont, North Carolina, E-mail: birdcr(at)concentric.net, http://www.rlephoto.com
  • Ray Stanford
  • Reg Veas, Ontario, Canada
  • Richard Peigler, Denver Museum of Natural History, Colorado
  • Royal Ontario Museum
  • Sam McCaughey
  • Steve Bayer, http://www.steve-o.com
  • Steve Cary
  • Steve Smith
  • Steve Stone, Denver, Colorado
  • Steve West
  • Tami Carlson, St. Paul, Minnesota
  • Terry & Marci Fuller
  • Tim Adams, E-mail: polydamas(at)ij.net
  • Todd Stout, E-mail: todd_stout29(at)hotmail.com, http://www.raisingbutterflies.org
  • Vernon A. Brou, Jr. E-mail: vabrou(at)bellsouth.net
  • Whitney Cranshaw

Contributors to Butterflies of the Eastern United States (Paul A. Opler)

The author surveyed museum collections at the National Museum of Natural History (Washington, D.C.); Frost Museum, Pennsylvania State University; and the E. O. Essig Museum, University of California at Berkeley. Other state institutional collections were surveyed by contributors. It is these contributors who should receive most of the credit for the many days afield and the many hours spent compiling records. The names of the many collectors or naturalists who provided data to state compilers or for recently published state treatments are not all included, but their contributions were crucial. Dr. John M. Burns (USNM), Dr. K. C. Kim (Frost Museum), and Dr. J. A. Powell (Essig Museum) kindly allowed the author to examine collections under their care. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided logistic support.
Contributors to the text (by state):
ALABAMA: J. Brill, *C. T. Bryson, O. Chermock, J. J. Lavasseur; ARKANSAS: H. E. Barton, V. Board, *L. Paulissen (deceased), J. R. Heitzman; CONNECTICUT: *L. F. Gall, *J. DeWind, *A. B. Klots (deceased), *D. F. Schweitzer, B. Williams III; FLORIDA: *R. A. Anderson, *H. D. Baggett, T. S. Dickel, F. S. Howell, *B. Lencewski, J. & N. Riggenbach; GEORGIA: R. T. Arbogast, *I. Finkelstein, H. Flashka, J. Maudsly, P. Milner, R. A. Moulis, *A. Towers; ILLINOIS: R. T. Arbogast, *P. J. Conway, D. Heath, *D. Hess, R. R. Irwin, *J. M. Prescott (deceased), Y. Sedman, E. Tryon, J. R. Wiker; INDIANA: R. Bracher, C. Burkhart, E. M. Shull; IOWA: P. J. Conway, *J. C. Downey, KENTUCKY: *C. V. Covell, Jr., L. Koehn, A. Showalter; LOUISIANA: *M. L. Israel; MAINE: J. Brewer, *A. E. Brower (deceased), *L. P. Grey (deceased); MARYLAND: *W. Andersen, *J. H. Fales, *P. J. Kean, W. Grooms, A. Platt, R. Simmons, *R. H. Smith, R. Stewart, M. Carpenter, R. T. Mitchell; MASSACHUSETTS: D. Bowers, *L. F. Gall, C. Leahy, *D. F. Schweitzer, B. Williams III, D. Willis, *W. D. Winter; MICHIGAN: *M. C. Nielsen, J. Parkinson; MINNESOTA: R. Dana, R. L. Huber, *J. S. Nordin, T. L. McCabe; MISSISSIPPI: *C. T. Bryson, *B. Mather; MISSOURI: G. Balogh, *J. R. Heitzman; NEW HAMPSHIRE: J. Holmes, W. J. Kiel, *W. D. Winter; NEW JERSEY: D. Adelberg (deceased), *M. Monica, *J. Muller, D. F. Schweitzer, *R. E. Stanford, W. B. Wright; NEW YORK: *J. Ingraham, L. L. Pechumen; NORTH CAROLINA: *R. W. Cavanaugh, Jr., *C. & S. Gifford (deceased), W. H. Hartgroves, R. E. Price, Jr., J. B. Sullivan III, N. A. White; OHIO: *D. A. Curutt, *L. Koehn, V. P. Lucas (Deceased), *L. Martin, *D. Parshall, A. Williams; PENNSYLVANIA: R. W. Boscoe, W. F. Boscoe, G. Ehle, *F. D. Fee, T. A. Greager, G. B. Murray, C. G. Oliver, G. Patterson (deceased), *J. M. Prescott (deceased), *E. Quinter, C. E. Schildknecht, *T. S. Williams; SOUTH CAROLINA: R. T. Arbogast, *L. L. Gaddy, S. W. Hamilton, T. M. Hill, *R. Mancke, *J. C. Morse, P. Nugent, R. S. Peigler, J. Shuler, E. Taylor, M. D. Taylor, *J. W. McCord; TENNESSEE: M. Furr, *J. A. Hyatt, A. Showalter, *C. N. Watson, Jr.; VERMONT: C. W. Freeman, Jr.; VIRGINIA: *R. A. Anderson, J. M. Coffman, *C. V. Covell, Jr., W. H. Hartgroves, J. A. Hyatt, *L. Koehn, S. S. Nicolay, *R. & J. Simpson, *R. H. Smith, C. Tufts, C. N. Watson, Jr., D. A. West; WEST VIRGINIA: *T. Allen, *L. Butler, W. H. Hartgroves; WISCONSIN: J. A. Ebner, *L. A. Ferge, *F. Karpuleon (deceased), *R. M. Kuehn, G. Holbach, R. Leary(* = provided significant number of records) Persons who gave data for several states: R. A. Anderson, G. Balogh, J. Brewer, F. S. Chew, C. V. Covell, Jr., M. Furr, L. P. Grey, P. H. Hammond, D. Hess, J. Ingraham, M. L. Israel, F. Karpuleon (deceased), R. O. Kendall, L. Koehn, G. O. Krizek, V. P. Lucas (deceased), M. Minno, M. Monica, S. J. Mueller, P. A. Opler, H. Pavulaan, R. K. Robbins, D. F. Schweitzer, R. H. Smith, R. E. Stanford, W. H. Wagner, Jr., W. D. Winter. Additional persons who provided county records are listed in the acknowledgments section of the Peterson Field Guide to Butterflies of Eastern North America (Opler and Malikul, 1992).

Contributors to Butterflies of Western USA and Northern Mexico (Ray Stanford and Paul A. Opler)

The authors received data from over 320 individuals, reviewed over 300 books and scientific papers, and examined material in nearly every public and private collection in western North America and a few major Eastern ones (see next paragraph). The following list includes only those who contributed over 10 data points, and major publication authors. First, the authors wish to thank family members who have provided support in many ways in addition to specific records: Katharine, Sandra (deceased), Nora, Tim, Chris, Linda, Scott, Laura, Dwight, Maxine (deceased), Dorris (deceased), Gail, Margot, Bill, Winifred, and a few faithful dogs who mainly got in the way. And unnamed friends, students, birders, 4-H members ad infinitum. All contributors deserve thanks, but especially the following observers, collectors, curators, and authors, some of whom are no longer living.

Full list of individual contributors to this text:
J.K. Adams, B. K. Akey, C.Albright, C.C. Albright, R.J. Albright, V.Albu, D.E. Allen, R.L. Allen, A.C. Allyn, Jr., G.G. Anweiler, R.A. Arnold, G.T. Austin, J.S. Bach, K.C. Bagdonas and his students, R.A. Bailowitz, J.H. Baker, N.W. Baker, G.J. Balogh, D.L. Barlow, D.L. Bauer, J.Belicek, E.L. Bell, P.F. Bellinger, L.D. Beutler, C.D. Bird, T.B. Blevins, J.J. Bowe, M.D. Bowers, D.E. Bowman, K.Bowman, G.Bowser, J.H. Brandt, R.W. Breedlove, R.Breitbach, J.Brewer, C.A. Bridges, B. B. Brinkman, J.P. Brock, F.M. Brown, J.W. Brown, K.S. Brown, K.W. Brown, J.M. Burns, G.W. Busby, R. C. Busby, V.F. Calkins, C. J. Callaghan, S.J. Cary, R.Chehey, F.H. Chermock, R.L. Chermock, F. S. Chew, J.R. Christensen, J.Chu, H.H. Chuah, J.F.G. Clarke, H.K. Clench, T.D.A. Cockerell, J.J. Coleman, J.A. Comstock, P.J. Conway, K.R. Coolidge, C.V. Covell, Jr., R.Coyle, L.Crabtree, F.C. Cross, C.R. Crowe, D.A. Currutt, N.S. Curtis, C. Dammers, N.E. Dankert, K.Davenport, W.R. Dawes, J.DeBenedictis, T.S. Dickel, T.E. Dimock, Y.P. Dion, J.P. Donahue, E.J. Dornfeld, C.F. dosPassos, M.G. Douglas, M.M. Douglas, J.C. Downey, J.F. Doyle, W.L. Doyle, C. J. Durden, S. K. Dvorak, P. L. Eades, H. E. Edgecomb, W. H. Edwards, J. D. Eff, P. R. Ehrlich, D. L. Eller, S. L. Ellis, M. J. Elrod, C. A. Ely and his associates, J. F. Emmel, T. C. Emmel, M. Epstein, P.Eriksson, T. Escalante, W. H. Evans, D. K. Faulkner, K. M. Fender, D. J. Ferguson, C. D. Ferris, G. H. Field, W. D. Field, M. S. Fisher, R. A. Fisher, Jr., J. P. Fitter, G. S. Forbes, S. A. Fratello, H. A. Freeman, T. P. Friedlander, E. A. Froemel, L. F. Gall, R. C. Gardner, J. S. Garth, W. J. Gertsch, G. B. Gier, C. F. Gillette, C. P. Gillette, K. Goeden, C.Goodpasture, G. A. Gorelick, M. Graves, W. W. Gregory, L. P. Grey, B. M. Griffin, F.Grinnell, Jr., D. R. Groothuis, J. D. Gunder, C. S. Guppy, J. E. Hafernik, C.Hageman, W. A. Hammer, P. C. Hammond, W. S. Hammond, K. C. Hansen, C. Lawson, C. F. Harbison, R. L. Hardesty, G. J. Harjes, C. E. Harp, L. N. Harris, J. L. Harry, W. A. Hedges, J. R. Heitzman, C. J. Henne, J. B. Heppner, P. J. Herlan, D. F. Hess, J. I. Hetzler, E. B. Higgins, L. G. Higgins, J. Hinchliff, R. W. Hodges, R. W. Holland, W. J. Holland, F. E. Holley, R. R. Hooper, W. Hovanitz, M. L. Howard, W. H. Howe, J. P. Hubbard, P. Hubbell, R. L. Huber, K. C. Hughes, C. Ingham, R. J. Jae, D. W. Jenkins, S. G. Jewett, J. M. Johnson, K. Johnson, S. A. Johnson, J. Johnstone, K. Jordan, J.C. Jordison, P. M. Jump, J. A. Justice, F. H. Karpuleon, A. J. Kean, L. C. Keenan, R. V. Kelson, R. O. Kendall, H. E. Kingery, P. Klassen, P. K. Kleintjes, R. L. Klopshinske, A.B. Klots, W. E. Knoshaug, E. C. Knudson, S.J. Kohler, N. G. Kondla, B. C. Kondratieff, H. F. Koopmann, D. C. Kritsky, N.L. LaDue, B. H. Landing, J. Lane, R. L. Langston, U.Lanham, R.J. Lavigne, D.D. Lawrie, R. A. Layberry, D. Leatherman, I. Leeuw, S. R. Leffler, J. A. Legge, R. H. Leuschner, R. A. Leussler, A. W. Lindsey, J.Llorente-Bousquets, A. F. Ludtke, F. E. Lutz, M. Lutz, C. D. MacNeill, R. W. Macy, T.R. Manley, J. H. Manning, G. M. Marrone, N. L. Marston, L. M. Martin, J. H. Masters, B.Mather, R. H. T. Mattoni, S. O. Mattoon, J. T. McBurney, T. L. McCabe, J.McCaffrey, D.V. McCorkle, J. H. McDunnough, W. W. McGuire, M.L. McInnis, S.S. McKown, T. L. Mead, J.R. Merritt, R.P. Meyer, J. Michaels, J. Y. Miller, L. D. Miller, S. E. Miller, W. C. Minor, J. I. Minow, A. H. Moeck, J. Mouw, J. R. Mori, R.Mosbacker, R. C. Mower, S. J. Mueller, D.Mullins, E.G. Munroe, D. D. Murphy, V.Nabokov, C. D. Nagano, H. W. Nash, J. M. Nelson, S.M. Nelson, E. J. Newcomer, R. J. Niedrach, J. S. Nordin, P.Nordin, J.Oberfoell, C. Odegard, J.L. Odor, B.A. O'Hara, C. G. Oliver, Opler family, L.J. Orsak, E.J. Oslar, D.K. Parshall, W.D. Patterson, R.S. Peigler, J.P. Pelham, E.M. Perkins, Jr., S. P. Perkins, A. Peters, K.W. Philip, W. L. Phillips, D.E. Phillipson, E.M. Pike, A.P. Platt, M.G. Pogue, R.L. Post, J.A. Powell, G.F. Pratt, S. J. Prchal, F. W. Preston, J.D. Preston, R.A. Price, R. C. Priestaf, R.A. Pudim, R.M. Pyle, T.L. Pyle, C.S. Quelch, R.A. Rahn, J.Reichel, H. V. Reinhard, W. J. Reinthal, J.M. Reiser, C. L. Remington, P. S. Remington, J.J. Renk, J.L. Richards, M.A. Rickard, J. C. Rigli, F. H. Rindge, P. C. Ritterbush, J. B. Robb, R. K. Robbins, H.G. Rodeck, K. Roever, R. C. Rosche, B. Rotger, L. W. Rothschild, R.A. Royer, A. H. Rubbert, P. S. Russell, P.J. Savage, L.Schellbach, C.D. Schryver, G.R. Scott, J.A. Scott, S.H. Scudder, C.A. Sekerman, O.E. Sette, A.M. Shapiro, J.H. Shepard, A.O. Shields, G.Shier, D.F. Shillingburg, R. J. Skalski, C. P. Slater, A. C. Smith, M.J. Smith, J.M. Snider, A.J. Snyder, F.H. Snow, S.W. Sommerfeld, O.D. Spencer, F.A.H. Sperling, S.M. Spomer, D.B. Stallings, Stanford family, J.Steiner, S.R. Steinhauser, G.Stephens, R.F. Sternitzky, G.A. Sutton, A.W. Swengel, W.L. Swisher, O. R. Taylor, Jr., G. D. Thayer, P.M. Thompson, F. T. Thorne, D.Threatful, K.B. Tidwell, J.W. Tilden, N.B. Tindale, M. E. Toliver, P.M. Tuskes, H.A. Tyler, T.E. Valente, R. H. Vanderhoff, J.B. Vernon, B.Vogel, E.G. Voss, D. L. Wagner, W.H. Wagner, Jr., J.B. Walsh, A. D. Warren, E.A. Webb, B.H. Weber, W.A. Weber, W.F. Wehling, J.D. Weintraub, R.E. Wells, W.H. Whaley, W.L. Wheaton, R. R. White, B. D. Williams, E. H. Williams, F.X. Williams, R. C. Williams, Jr., K. H. Wilson, R. G. Wind, W. D. Winter, Jr., J.Woodgate, R. J. Wooley, D. M. Wright, W.G. Wright, W. S. Wright, R.J. Wuttken, M. E. Young, J. D. Zeligs, W. L. Zemanek, J. B. Ziegler. We also thank Evi Buckner, Braxton Lathrop, and Linda Stanford for the artwork, and finally Susan Berg and her staff for seeing the final product through the press.

Museum collections examined by one or both of the authors for Western records include the following:

  • Allyn Museum of Entomology, University of Florida, Sarasota, Florida
  • American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York
  • California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California
  • Canadian National Collection, Ottawa
  • C. P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Biodiversity, Colorado State University, Fort Collins
  • Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver, Colorado
  • Essig Museum of Entomology, University of California, Berkeley
  • Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois
  • Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville
  • Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign
  • Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, Los Angeles, California
  • Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
  • Nevada State Museums, Carson City and Las Vegas, Nevada
  • Ohio State University, Columbus
  • Oregon State University, Corvallis
  • Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario
  • San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego, California
  • University of Colorado Museum, Boulder
  • University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky
  • University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota
  • University of Wyoming, Laramie

Contributors of Moth Data to the NPWRC Dataset

The maps and images of North American moths that made up the NPWRC dataset were the result of information contributed by hundreds of individuals, particularly scientists and amateur lepidopterists who made available data from their institutional or personal collections, or coordinators of state or regional databases. This amounts to at least hundreds or thousands of hours of effort expended by each person whose name is mentioned. In the case of state or regional coordinators, each person listed may represent tens or hundreds of other persons who contributed data. The names are listed for each of the projects that made up the overall database on the NPWRC website.

Subfamily Heliothentinae of the Noctuidae, Owlet Moths
Data contributed by Chuck Harp, Littleton, Colorado. Mailing address: 8834 W. Quarto Ave. Littleton, CO 80128

Subfamilies Catocalinae, Hadeninae and Noctuinae of the Noctuidae, Owlet Moths
Data contributed by Dr. Michael Pogue, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, U.S.D.A., Washington, D.C.

Distribution of Saturniidae of Western North America
The following individuals generously provided locality records at our request for the first edition and we wish to thank them for their invaluable contributions: Ray Albright, Donald E. Bowman, Clifford D. Ferris, Paul Hammond, Richard C. Holland, Roy O. Kendall, Edward C. Knudson, Boris C. Kondratieff, Robert L. Langston, Claude Lemaire, David V. McCorkle, Noel McFarland; Stephanie McKown, Raymond W. Neck, Harold Rice, Richard C. Rosche, Patrick J. Savage, Jon H. Shepard, Michael J. Smith, Steven Spomer, Ray E. Stanford, Stephen E. Stone, Andrew D. Warren, Michael J. Weissmann, and Kirby L. Wolfe.We thank curators in the following institutions for access to material under their care: Biosystematics Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario; Chadron State College, Chadron, Nebraska; C.P. Gillette Museum of Insect Biodiversity, Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Denver Museum of Natural History, Colorado; Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois; James Entomology Collection, Washington State University, Pullman; Kearney State College, Kearney, Nebraska; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C.; Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Oregon State University, Corvallis; Pikes Peak Research Station, Florissant, Colorado; Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto; University of Colorado, Boulder; University of California, Berkeley; University of California, Davis; University of Kansas; Lawrence; W.F. Barr Collection, University of Idaho, Moscow.Jon H. Shepard recorded data from private collections and institutions in the Pacific Northwest and graciously provided them for use in this atlas. We gratefully acknowledge the individuals and collections who provided data to Mr. Shepard.

Distribution of Sphingidae of Western North America
The following institutional collections were consulted for specimen data for this study: Albertson College of Idaho, Caldwell; Boise State University, Boise, Idaho; California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco; California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento; Chadron State College, Chadron, Nebraska; Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver, Colorado; Kearney State College, Kearney, Nebraska; Nevada State Museum and Historical Society, Las Vegas; New Mexico State University, Las Cruces; Oregon Department of Agriculture, Salem; Oregon State University, Corvallis; Pikes Peak Research Station, Florissant, Colorado; Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego, California; San Jose State University, San Jose, California; United States Natural History Museum, Washington, D.C.; University of Arizona, Tucson; University of California, Berkeley; University of California, Davis; University of Colorado, Boulder; University of Idaho, Moscow; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Utah State University, Logan; Washington State University, Pullman.Information based on specimens from collections curated by the following individuals were consulted: George Austin, Las Vegas, Nevada; Andre Blanchard (deceased), Houston, Texas; Don bowman, Golden, Colorado; Jim Brock, Tucson, Arizona; Neil Dankert, Kearney, Nebraska; Scott Ellis, Fort Collins, Colorado; Clifford Ferris, Laramie, Wyoming; Greg Forbes, Las Cruces, New Mexico; Chuck Harp, Littleton, Colorado; Richard Holland, Albuquerque, New Mexico; Roy Kendall, San Antonio, Texas; Ed Knudson, Houston, Texas; Robert Langston, Kensington, California; Douglas Long (deceased), North Dakota; David McCorkle, Monmouth, Oregon; Stephanie McKown, Camas, Washington; Noel McFarland, Hereford, Arizona; Stephen Miller, Grass Valley, California; Raymond Neck, Houston, Texas; John Nelson, Tulsa, Oklahoma; William D. Patterson, Sacramento, California; Kelly Richers, Bakersfield, California; Richard Rosche, Chadron, Nebraska; David Russell, Davis, California; Jon Shepard, Nelson, British Columbia; Jeffrey Smith, Rocklyn, California; Michael Smith, Roseville, California; Stephen Spomer, Lincoln, Nebraska; Ray Stanford, Denver, California.

Distribution of Saturniidae and Sphingidae of Eastern North America
I wish to thank the following individuals who provided information on the regional occurrence of eastern U.S. and eastern Canadian hawkmoths and silkmoths: James K. Adams, Dalton, Georgia; Tom Allen, Elkins, West Virginia; Michael Beohm, Thomaston, Georgia; Robert Burnett, New York; Linda Butler, Morgantown, West Virginia; Matthew Jason Call, Ganby, Connecticut; Everett D. Cashatt, Springfield, Illinois; Paul Cavalonte, New York; Charles V. Covell, Jr., Louisville, Kentucky; R. Dirig, Ithaca, New York; Andrew Douglass, Traverse City, Michigan; Christopher Douglas, Traverse City, Michigan; John F. Douglass, Toledo, Ohio; Leslie A. Ferge, Middleton, Wisconsin; Richard C. Fleming, Olivet, Michigan; Ed Fuller, Edmonton, Alberta; George Godfrey, Haskell, Oklahoma; Thomas Greager, Greensburg, Pennsylvania; Steve Greenfield, Dougherty County, Georgia; Frank Gregus, New Jersey; A.J. Hanks, Aurora, Ontario; W. Houtz, Pine Grove, Pennsylvania; Steven Johnson, Sunbury, Pennsylvania; Boris C. Kondratieff, Fort Collins, Colorado; Steven Krauth, Madison, Wisconsin; George O. Krizek, Washington, D.C.; James J. Kruse, Kewaskum, Wisconsin; W.B. McKillop, Winnipeg, Manitoba; Stephanie McKown, Camas, Washington; Peter May, Florida; Jim Mouw, Iowa Falls, Iowa; John C. Morse; Troy Payne, Charlottesville, Virginia; R.A. Raguso, New Jersey; Ron Rockwell, Kentucky; Daniel Sblendorio, Middletown, New Jersey; Arthur Sciaulino, Eatontown, New Jersey; John Snyder, Greenville, South Carolina; Robert Spevak, Michigan City, Indiana; Rob Stevenson, Massachusetts; Theodore N. Taft, Fredonia, New York; Jim Taylor, Savannah, Georgia; A.W. Thomas, Fredericton, New Brunswick; James P. Tuttle, Troy, Michigan; Dr. and Mrs. R.A. Valerio, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan; Jeanne Van Houten, Ellisville, Mississippi; David L. Wagner, Storrs, Connecticut; Robert Weast, Johnston, Iowa; Benjamin D. Williams, III, Pomfret Center, Connecticut; Bob Woodward, St. Paul, Minnesota; Amy Bartlett Wright, Rhode Island; Chris A. Young, Angola, Indiana.Data were collected from the following institutional collections: Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina; Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Cornell University, Ithaca, New York; Furman University, Greenville, South Carolina; Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, Illinois; Illinois State Museum, Springfield, Illinois; Mississippi Entomological Museum, Mississippi State, Mississippi; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.; Oregon State University, Corvallis; Strickland Museum, University of Alberta, Edmonton; University of Colorado, Boulder; University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky; University of Minnesota, St. Paul; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; University of Northern Michigan; University of Wisconsin, Madison; West Virginia Department of Agriculture, Charleston; West Virginia University, Morgantown; Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.Special thanks to A.D. Warren for recording data from the Cornell University Insect Collection and Leonard Munstermann for providing data from the Peabody Natural History Museum at Yale University.The Zoology Department of the Nature Conservancy allowed collection of data from several eastern U.S. museums and compilation of the atlas.

Distribution of Arctiidae of Western North America
We examined Arctiidae material at the following museums and thank the curators for their kindness and efforts on our behalf: American Museum of Natural History (James S. Miller); California Academy of Science (Ron Robertson), Chadron State College, Chadron, Nebraska (Richard C. Rosche), Colorado State University, Fort Collins (Boris Kondratieff); Denver Museum of Natural History (Richard Peigler); Hays State University, Hays, Kansas (Charles Ely), National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. (Douglas C. Ferguson); Natural History Museum, London (Philip Ackery); Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (Julian Donahue); New Mexico State University (Greg Forbes); Oregon State University, Corvallis (Paul Hammond), Pikes Peak Research Station, Florissant, Colo. (Boyce Drummond); Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (Christopher Darling); University of California, Berkeley (Jerry A. Powell); San Jose State University (Ronald E. Stecker); University of California, Davis (Robert Schuster-deceased); University of Colorado (Virginia Scott); University of Nebraska, Lincoln (Brett Ratcliffe); and University of Wyoming, Laramie (Scott Shaw); and Yale University, New Haven (Lawrence Gall).We thank the following individuals for permitting us to include data from their private collections or for other assistance: James K. Adams, Dalton, Georgia; Donald E. Bowman, Golden, Colo.; Lars Crabo, Bellingham, Wash.; Charles Ely, Nacogdoches, Texas; Clifford D. Ferris, Laramie, Wyo.; Chuck Harp, Golden, Colo.; Richard Holland, Albuquerque, N. Mex.; Samuel A. Johnston, Colorado Springs, Colo.; Roy O. Kendall, San Antonio, Tex.; Edward C. Knudson, Houston, Texas; Ronald Leuschner, Manhattan Beach, Calif.; Stephanie McCown, Camas, Wash.; Noel McFarland, Sierra Vista, Ariz.; Robert C. Mower, Orem, Utah; Scott Miller, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii; Ray B. Nagle, Tucson, Ariz.; John Nordin, Laramie, Wyo.; Richard C. Rosche, Chadron, Nebr.; Jon Sheppard and contributors, Nelson, Brit. Col.; Charles Slater, Denver, Colo.; Ray E. Stanford, Denver, Colo.; Andrew J. Warren, Littleton, Colo.John Rawlins, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, provided records for the genus Bertholdia. Donald E. Bowman allowed specimens in his collection to be photographed for part 2 and provided advice on difficult taxonomic questions.