Family Noctuidae

Subfamily: Euteliinae (Euteliines)

Aon noctuiformis Aon Moth

Subfamily:

Stibaera thyatiroides Whaleback Moth

Subfamily: Xyleninae (Xylenine Moths)

Subfamily: Acontiinae (Acontiines)

Acontia cretata Chalky Bird-dropping Moth
Acontia delecta Delightful Bird-dropping Moth
Acontia tetragona Four-spotted Bird-dropping Moth
Acronicta dactylina Fingered Dagger Moth
Acronicta grisea Gray Dagger Moth
Acronicta noctivaga Night-wandering Dagger Moth
Amyna axis Eight-Spot
Amyna bullula Hook-tipped Amyna
Cerma cerintha Tufted Bird-Dropping Moth
Cerma cora Owl-eyed Bird-dropping Moth
Cydosia aurivitta Straight-lined Cydosia Moth
Diastema tigris Lantana Moth
Homophoberia apicosa Black Wedge-spot
Homophoberia cristata Waterlily Moth
Hyperstrotia flaviguttata Yellow-spotted Graylet
Hyperstrotia pervertens Dotted Graylet
Hyperstrotia secta Black-patched Graylet
Hyperstrotia villificans White-lined Graylet
Leuconycta diphteroides Green Leuconycta
Leuconycta lepidula Marbled-green Leuconycta Moth
Lithacodia musta Small Mossy Lithacodia
Marimatha nigrofimbria Black-bordered Lemon Moth
Oruza albocostaliata The White-Edge
Ozarba aeria Aerial Brown
Ponometia binocula Prairie Bird-dropping Moth
Ponometia candefacta Olive-shaded Bird-dropping Moth
Ponometia elegantula Arizona Bird Dropping Moth
Ponometia erastrioides Small Bird-dropping Moth
Ponometia semiflava Half-yellow Moth
Protodeltote muscosula Large Mossy Lithacodia
Spragueia apicalis Yellow Spragueia
Spragueia dama Southern Spragueia
Spragueia guttata Spotted Spragueia
Spragueia leo Common Spragueia
Spragueia onagrus Black-dotted Spragueia
Tarache aprica Exposed Bird-dropping Moth
Tarache augustipennis Narrow-winged Midget Moth

Subfamily: Acronictinae (Acronictines)

Acronicta afflicta Afflicted Dagger Moth
Acronicta americana American Dagger Moth
Acronicta betulae Birch Dagger Moth
Acronicta brumosa Charred Dagger Moth
Acronicta connecta Connected Dagger Moth
Acronicta exilis Exiled Dagger Moth
Acronicta fragilis Fragile Dagger Moth
Acronicta funeralis Funerary Dagger Moth
Acronicta haesitata Hesitant Dagger Moth
Acronicta hasta Speared Dagger Moth
Acronicta impleta Yellow-haired Dagger Moth
Acronicta inclara Unclear Dagger Moth
Acronicta increta Raspberry Bud Dagger Moth
Acronicta innotata Unmarked Dagger Moth
Acronicta interrupta Interrupted Dagger Moth
Acronicta laetifica Pleasant Dagger Moth
Acronicta leporina Leporina Dagger Moth
Acronicta lepusculina Cottonwood Dagger Moth
Acronicta lithospila Streaked Dagger
Acronicta lobeliae Lobelia Dagger Moth
Acronicta longa Long-winged Dagger
Acronicta marmorata Marble Dagger Moth
Acronicta modica Medium Dagger Moth
Acronicta morula Ochre Dagger Moth
Acronicta oblinita Smeared Dagger Moth
Acronicta ovata Ovate Dagger Moth
Acronicta radcliffei Radcliffe's Dagger Moth
Acronicta retardata Retarded Dagger Moth
Acronicta rubricoma Ruddy Dagger Moth
Acronicta sperata Hopeful Dagger Moth
Acronicta spinigera Nondescript Dagger Moth
Acronicta superans Splendid Dagger Moth
Acronicta tritona Triton Dagger Moth
Acronicta vinnula Delightful Dagger Moth
Acronicta vulpina Miller Dagger Moth
Agriopodes fallax The Green Marvel
Agriopodes teratophora Gray Marvel Moth
Harrisimemna trisignata Harris' Three Spot
Simyra insularis Henry's Marsh Moth

Subfamily: Amphipyrinae (Amphipyrines)

Achatodes zeae Elder Shoot Borer Moth
Amolita fessa Feeble Grass Moth
Amphipoea americana American Ear Moth
Amphipoea velata Veiled Ear Moth
Amphipyra glabella Smooth Amphipyra Moth
Amphipyra pyramidoides Copper Underwing
Anathix puta Poplar Catkin Moth
Anathix ralla Dotted Sallow
Apamea cariosa Nondescript Dagger Moth
Apamea helva Yellow Three-spot
Apamea lignicolora Wood-colored Apamea
Apamea nigrior Black-dashed Apamea
Apamea plutonia Dusky Apamea
Apamea sordens finitima Bordered Apamea
Apamea unanimis Small Clouded Brindle
Apamea vulgaris Common Apamea
Apamea vultuosa Airy Apamea
Athetis tarda The Slow Poke
Azenia obtusa Obtuse Yellow
Balsa labecula White-blotched Balsa
Balsa tristrigella Three-lined Balsa
Basilodes pepita Gold Moth
Callopistria cordata Silver-spotted Fern Moth
Callopistria floridensis Florida Callopistria Moth
Callopistria granitosa Granitose Fern Moth
Callopistria mollissima Pink-shaded Fern Moth
Chytonix palliatricula Cloaked Marvel
Cirrhophanus triangulifer Goldenrod Stowaway
Condica confederata The Confederate
Condica cupentia Splotched Groundling
Condica mobilis Mobile Groundling
Condica vecors Dusky Groundling
Condica videns White-dotted Groundling
Crambodes talidiformis Verbena Moth
Dypterygia rozmani American Bird-wing Moth
Elaphria alapallida Pale-winged Midget
Emarginea percara Beloved Emarginea Moth
Eremobina claudens Dark-winged Quaker
Euplexia benesimilis American Angle Shades
Galgula partita The Wedgling
Hydraecia immanis Hop Vine Borer Moth
Hydraecia micacea Rosy Rustic Moth
Hypocoena inquinata Sordid Wainscot
Hyppa xylinoides Common Hyppa
Ipimorpha pleonectusa Even-lined Sallow
Luperina passer Dock Rustic
Micrathetis triplex Triplex Cutworm Moth
Nedra ramosula Gray Half-Spot
Neoligia exhausta Exhausted Brocade
Neumoegenia poetica Poetry Moth
Ogdoconta cinereola Common Pinkband
Oligia bridghamii Bridgham's Brocade
Oligia minuscula Small Brocade
Oligia modica Black-banded Brocade
Papaipema (New species #1) Fly Poison Borer Moth
Papaipema arctivorens Northern Burdock Borer Moth
Papaipema astuta Yellow Stoneroot Borer Moth
Papaipema beeriana Blazing Star Borer Moth
Papaipema birdi Umbellifer Borer Moth
Papaipema cataphracta Burdock Borer Moth
Papaipema circumlucens Hop Stalk Borer Moth
Papaipema impecuniosa Aster Borer Moth
Papaipema inquaesita Sensitive Fern Borer Moth
Papaipema nebris Stalk Borer Moth
Papaipema necopina Sunflower Borer Moth
Papaipema pterisii Bracken Borer Moth
Papaipema rigida Rigid Sunflower Borer Moth
Papaipema silphii Silphius Borer Moth
Perigea xanthioides Red Groundling
Phlogophora iris Olive Angle Shades
Phosphila miselioides Spotted Phosphila
Plagiomimicus pityochromus Black-barred Brown
Platypolia mactata Adorable Brocade
Proxenus miranda Miranda Moth
Spodoptera dolichos Dolichos Armyworm Moth
Spodoptera exigua Beet Armyworm Moth
Spodoptera frugiperda Fall Armyworm Moth
Spodoptera ornithogalli Yellow-striped Armyworm Moth
Stiria rugifrons Yellow Sunflower Moth

Subfamily: Bagisarinae (Bagisarine Moths)

Bagisara rectifascia Straight Lined Mallow Moth
Bagisara repanda Wavy Lined Mallow Moth

Subfamily: Cuculliinae (Cucullines)

Calophasia lunula Toadflax Brocade
Catabena lineolata Five-lined Sallow
Chaetaglaea sericea Silky Sallow
Chaetaglaea tremula Trembling Sallow
Copivaleria grotei Grote's Sallow
Cucullia asteroides The Asteroid
Cucullia convexipennis Brown-hooded Owlet
Cucullia intermedia Intermediate Cucullia
Cucullia montanae Mountain Hooded Owlet
Cucullia speyeri Speyer's Hooded Owlet
Cucullia strigata Streaked Hooded Owlet Moth
Epiglaea apiata Pointed Sallow
Eupsilia devia Lost Sallow
Eupsilia morrisoni Morrison's Sallow
Eupsilia sidus Sidus Sallow Moth
Eupsilia vinulenta Straight-toothed Sallow
Feralia comstocki Comstock's Sallow
Fishia yosemitae Dark Gray Fishia
Lithophane antennata Ashen Pinion
Lithophane baileyi Bailey's Pinion
Lithophane bethunei Bethune's Pinion
Lithophane fagina Hoary Pinion
Lithophane grotei Grote's Pinion
Lithophane oriunda Immigrant Pinion
Lithophane semiusta Singed Pinion
Lithophane signosa Signate Pinion
Lithophane viridipallens Pale Green Pinion
Psaphida electilis Chosen Sallow
Psaphida grandis Gray Sallow
Psaphida resumens Figure-Eight Sallow
Psaphida rolandi Roland's Sallow
Psaphida styracis Fawn Sallow
Sericaglaea signata Variable Sallow
Sunira bicolorago Bicolored Sallow
Sympistis perscripta Scribbled Sallow
Xanthia togata Pink-barred Sallow
Xylotype arcadia Acadian Sallow
Xylotype capax Broad Sallow

Subfamily: Eustrotiinae (Eustrotiines)

Capis curvata Curved Halter Moth
Deltote bellicula Bog Deltote
Maliattha concinnimacula Red-spotted Lithacodia Moth
Maliattha synochitis Black-dotted Maliattha
Protodeltote albidula Pale Glyph Moth
Pseudeustrotia carneola Pink-barred Pseudeustrotia

Subfamily: Oncocnemidinae (Oncocnemidine Moths)

Adita chionanthi Fringe-Tree Sallow
Neogalea sunia Lantana Stick Moth
Pleromelloida cinerea Ashy Pleromelloida Moth
Sympistis badistriga Brown-lined Sallow Moth
Sympistis dentata Toothed Apharetra
Sympistis infixa Broad-lined Sallow Moth

Subfamily: Pantheinae (Pantheines)

Charadra deridens The Laugher
Colocasia flavicornis Yellowhorn Moth
Colocasia propinquilinea Closebanded Yellowhorn Moth
Panthea acronyctoides Black Zigzag
Panthea furcilla Eastern Panthea

Subfamily: Plusiinae (Plusiines)

Abrostola urentis Variegated Brindle Moth
Allagrapha aerea Unspotted Looper Moth
Anagrapha falcifera Celery Looper Moth
Argyrogramma basigera Pink-washed Looper Moth
Argyrogramma verruca Golden Looper Moth
Autographa ampla Large Looper Moth
Autographa bimaculata Two-Spotted Looper Moth
Autographa mappa Wavy Chestnut Y Moth
Autographa precationis The Common Looper Moth
Autographa sansoni Alberta Beauty
Chrysanympha formosa Formosa Looper Moth
Chrysodeixis includens Soybean Looper Moth
Ctenoplusia oxygramma Sharp-stigma Looper Moth
Diachrysia aereoides Dark-spotted Looper
Diachrysia balluca Hologram Moth
Eosphoropteryx thyatyroides Pink-Patched Looper Moth or Pink-tinted beauty
Megalographa biloba Bilobed Looper Moth
Plusia contexta Connected Looper Moth
Plusia putnami Putnam's Looper Moth
Rachiplusia ou Gray Looper Moth
Syngrapha alias Hooked Silver Y
Syngrapha epigaea Epigaea Looper
Syngrapha ignea Mountain Beauty Moth
Syngrapha octoscripta Dusky Silver Y
Syngrapha rectangula Salt-and-Pepper Looper Moth
Syngrapha viridisigma Spruce False Looper Moth
Trichoplusia ni Cabbage Looper Moth

Subfamily: Psaphidinae (Psaphidine Moths)

Feralia deceptiva Deceptive Sallow
Feralia jocosa Jocose Sallow
Feralia major Major Sallow

Subfamily: Hadeninae (Hadenine Noctuid Moths)

Achatia distincta Distinct Quaker
Anarta trifolii The Nutmeg
Andropolia contacta Canadian Giant
Archanara oblonga Oblong Sedge Borer Moth
Crocigrapha normani Norman's Quaker
Dargida diffusa Wheat Head Armyworm Moth
Dargida rubripennis The Pink-Streak
Egira alternans Alternate Woodling
Elaphria chalcedonia Chalcedony Midget
Elaphria festivoides Festive Midget
Elaphria grata Grateful Midget
Elaphria versicolor Variegated Midget
Himella intractata Intractable Quaker
Homorthodes furfurata Scurfy Quaker
Lacanobia subjuncta Speckled Cutworm Moth
Lacinipolia anguina Snaky Arches
Lacinipolia explicata Explicit Arches
Lacinipolia implicata Implicit Arches
Lacinipolia laudabilis Laudable Arches
Lacinipolia lorea Bridled Arches
Lacinipolia meditata The Thinker
Lacinipolia olivacea Olive Arches
Lacinipolia renigera Bristly Cutworm Moth
Leucania inermis Unarmed Wainscot
Leucania multilinea Many-lined Wainscot
Leucania oregona Oregon Wainscot
Leucania phragmitidicola Phragmites Wainscot
Leucania pseudargyria False Wainscot
Leucania scirpicola Scirpus Wainscot
Leucania ursula Ursula Wainscot
Mamestra configurata Bertha Armyworm
Melanchra adjuncta Hitched Arches
Melanchra assimilis Black Arches
Melanchra picta Zebra Caterpillar Moth
Morrisonia confusa Confused Woodgrain
Morrisonia evicta Bicolored Woodgrain
Morrisonia latex Fluid Arches
Morrisonia mucens Gray Woodgrain
Mythimna unipuncta Armyworm Moth
Nephelodes minians Bronzed Cutworm Moth
Oligia fractilinea Broken-lined Brocade
Orthodes cynica Cynical Quaker
Orthodes detracta Disparaged Arches
Orthodes majuscula Rustic Quaker
Orthosia alurina Gray Quaker
Orthosia garmani Garman's Quaker
Orthosia hibisci Speckled Green Fruitworm Moth
Orthosia revicta Subdued Quaker
Orthosia rubescens Ruby Quaker
Polia imbrifera Cloudy Arches
Polia nimbosa Stormy Arches
Polia purpurissata Purple Arches
Protorthodes oviduca Ruddy Quaker
Pseudorthodes vecors Small Brown Quaker
Sideridis congermana The German Cousin
Sideridis maryx The Maroonwing
Sideridis rosea The Rosewing
Tricholita signata Signate Quaker
Trichordestra legitima Striped Garden Caterpillar
Ulolonche culea Sheathed Quaker
Xanthopastis regnatrix Spanish Moth

Subfamily: Noctuinae (Noctuine Noctuid Moths)

Abagrotis alternata Greater Red Dart
Acherdoa ferraria Chocolate Moth
Actebia fennica Black Army Cutworm
Agnorisma badinodis Pale-banded Dart
Agnorisma bugrai Collared Dart Moth
Agnorisma collaris Collared Dart
Agrotis gladiaria Swordsman Dart
Agrotis ipsilon Ipsilon Dart
Agrotis malefida Rascal Dart
Agrotis orthogonia Pale Western Cutworm
Agrotis venerabilis Venerable Dart
Agrotis vetusta Old Man Dart
Agrotis volubilis Voluble Dart
Anaplectoides brunneomedia Brown-lined Dart
Anaplectoides prasina Green Arches
Anaplectoides pressus Dappled Dart
Anicla illapsa Snowy Dart
Anicla infecta Green Cutworm Moth
Anicla lubricans Slippery Dart
Apamea amputatrix Yellow-headed Cutworm Moth
Apamea cogitata Thoughtful Apamea
Apamea devastator Glassy Cutworm
Apamea indocilis Ignorant Apamea
Apamea inficita Lined Quaker
Apamea niveivenosa Snowy-veined Apamea
Apamea occidens Western Apamea
Apamea spaldingi Spalding's Apamea
Bellura densa Pickerelweed Borer Moth
Bellura gortynoides White-tailed Diver
Bellura obliqua Cattail Borer Moth
Bellura vulnifica Black-tailed Diver
Caradrina clavipalpis Pale Mottled Willow Moth
Caradrina meralis Rare Sand Quaker
Caradrina montana Civil Rustic
Caradrina morpheus Mottled Rustic
Caradrina multifera Speckled Rustic
Cerastis tenebrifera Reddish Speckled Dart
Choephora fungorum Bent-Line Dart
Conservula anodonta Sharp Angle Shades
Cosmia calami American dun-bar Moth
Cryptocala acadiensis Catocaline Dart
Diarsia jucunda Smaller Pinkish Dart
Enargia decolor Pale Enargia
Enargia infumata Smoked Sallow
Epiglaea decliva Sloping Sallow
Eucirroedia pampina Scalloped Sallow
Eueretagrotis attenta Attentive Dart
Eueretagrotis perattenta Two-spot Dart
Euxoa auxiliaris Army Cutworm
Euxoa bostoniensis Boston Dart
Euxoa detersa Rubbed Dart
Euxoa divergens Divergent Dart
Euxoa immixta Mixed Dart
Euxoa messoria Reaper Dart
Euxoa ochrogaster Redbacked Cutworm
Euxoa perpolita Polished Dart
Euxoa redimicula Fillet Dart
Euxoa scandens White Cutworm
Euxoa servitus Slave Dart Moth
Euxoa tessellata Tessellate Dart
Euxoa velleripennis Fleece-winged Dart
Euxoa violaris Violet Dart
Feltia herilis Master's Dart
Feltia jaculifera Dingy Cutworm Moth
Feltia subgothica Subgothic Dart
Feltia subterranea Subterranean Dart Moth
Helotropha reniformis Reniform Celaena Moth
Homoglaea hircina Goat Sallow
Lemmeria digitalis Fingered Lemmeria
Lithomoia germana American Brindle
Lithophane disposita Dashed Gray Pinion
Lithophane georgii Large Grey Pinion, Green Fruitworm
Lithophane hemina Hemina Pinion Moth
Lithophane innominata Nameless Pinion
Lithophane patefacta Dimorphic Pinion Moth
Lithophane petulca Wanton Pinion
Lithophane querquera Shivering Pinion
Lithophane unimoda Dowdy Pinion
Macronoctua onusta Iris Borer Moth
Magusa divaricata Orbed Narrow-wing
Metaxaglaea australis Southern Sallow Moth
Metaxaglaea inulta Unsated Sallow
Metaxaglaea semitaria Footpath Sallow
Metaxaglaea viatica Roadside Sallow
Noctua comes Lesser Yellow Underwing Moth
Noctua pronuba European Yellow Underwing
Ochropleura implecta American Flame-shouldered Dart
Oligia illocata Wandering Brocade
Papaipema cerussata Ironweed Borer Moth
Papaipema duplicata Dark Stoneroot Borer Moth
Papaipema furcata Ash Tip Borer Moth
Papaipema lysimachiae Loosestrife Borer Moth
Papaipema maritima Maritime Sunflower Borer Moth
Papaipema nelita Coneflower Borer Moth
Papaipema polymniae Cup Plant Borer Moth
Papaipema rutila Mayapple Borer Moth
Papaipema speciosissima Osmunda Borer Moth
Parapamea buffaloensis Buffalo Moth
Peridroma saucia Variegated Cutworm Moth
Phlogophora periculosa Brown Angle Shades
Phosphila turbulenta Turbulent Phosphila
Photedes includens Included Cordgrass Borer Moth
Photedes panatela Northern Cordgrass Borer
Protolampra brunneicollis Brown-collared Dart
Pseudohermonassa bicarnea Pink-spotted Dart
Pseudohermonassa tenuicula Morrison's Sooty Dart
Pyreferra citrombra Citrine Sallow Moth
Pyreferra hesperidago Mustard Sallow
Resapamea stipata Four-lined Borer Moth
Spaelotis clandestina Clandestine Dart
Spodoptera albula Gray-streaked Armywom Moth
Spodoptera eridania Southern Armyworm Moth
Spodoptera latifascia Velvet Armyworm Moth
Spodoptera praefica Western Yellowstriped Armyworm
Spodoptera pulchella Caribbean Armyworm Moth
Striacosta albicosta Western Bean Cutworm
Sunira decipiens Shield-backed Cutworm
Sunira verberata Battered Sallow Moth
Xestia dilucida Dull Reddish Dart
Xestia dolosa Greater Black-letter Dart
Xestia normaniana Norman's Dart
Xestia smithii Smith's Dart
Xylena cineritia Gray Swordgrass
Xylena curvimacula Dot-And-Dash Swordgrass Moth
Xylena nupera American Swordgrass Moth
Xylomoia indirecta Oblique Brocade
Xystopeplus rufago Red-winged Sallow
Zotheca tranquilla Elderberry Moth

Subfamily: Dilobinae (Dilobine Moths)

Raphia abrupta Abrupt Brother
Raphia frater The Brother Moth

Subfamily: Heliothentinae (Heliothentine Moths, Flower Moths)

Derrima stellata Pink Star Moth
Eutricopis nexilis White-spotted Midget Moth
Helicoverpa zea Corn Earworm Moth
Heliocheilus paradoxus Paradoxical Grass Moth
Heliocheilus turbata Spotted Straw Moth
Heliothis subflexa Subflexus Straw
Heliothis subflexus Subflexus Straw
Heliothis turbatus Spotted Straw
Heliothis virescens Tobacco Budworm Moth
Pyrrhia adela Bordered Sallow
Pyrrhia auratiago Orange Sallow Moth
Pyrrhia cilisca Bordered Sallow
Pyrrhia exprimens Purple-Lined Sallow
Schinia arcigera Arcigera Flower Moth
Schinia bina Bina Flower Moth
Schinia florida Primrose Moth
Schinia gaurae Clouded Crimson
Schinia gloriosa Glorius Flower Moth
Schinia lucens Leadplant Flower Moth
Schinia lynx Lynx Flower Moth
Schinia nundina Goldenrod Flower Moth
Schinia rivulosa Ragweed Flower Moth
Schinia sanguinea Bleeding Flower Moth
Schinia saturata Brown Flower Moth
Schinia scissoides Divided Flower Moth
Schinia septentrionalis Northern Flower Moth
Schinia thoreaui Thoreau's Flower Moth
Schinia trifascia Three-lined Flower Moth
Schinia unimacula Rabbitbush Flower Moth

Subfamily: Bryophilinae (Bryophiline Moths)

Cryphia cuerva Cryphia Moth

Subfamily: Agaristinae (Forester Moths)

Alypia langtoni Langston's Forester
Alypia octomaculata Eight-spotted Forester
Alypia ridingsii Riding's Forester Moth
Alypia wittfeldii Wittfeld's Forester
Alypiodes bimaculata Two-spotted Forester Moth
Alypiodes geronimo Geronimo Forester
Androloma disparata Disparate Forester
Eudryas grata Beautiful Wood-nymph
Eudryas unio Pearly Wood-nymph
Euscirrhopterus cosyra Staghorn Cholla Moth
Psychomorpha epimenis Grapevine Epimenis
Xerociris wilsonii Wilson's Wood-nymph

Subfamily: Hypeninae (Hypenines)

Hormoschista latipalpis Double-lined Brown Moth

Subfamily: Hypenodinae (Hypenodine Moths)

Subfamily: Catocalinae (Catocaline Moths)

Tyta luctuosa Field Bindweed Moth

Subfamily: Odontiinae (Odontiines)

Subfamily: Diphtherinae (Diphtherine Moths)

Diphthera festiva Hieroglyphic Moth

Description

The Noctuids are members of the Superfamily Noctuoidea. Worldwide in distribution, this family is the largest in the Lepidoptera and has approximately 20,000 species. About 2,900 of these are found in North America, and there is wide variation in appearance and behavior. Most moths are gray to brown in color and have line or spots on their wings. Some species are brightly colored. They are small to large in size, and most species are medium-sized with wingspans 2 - 4.5 cm. When at rest, adults of most species hold their wings above their bodies like a roof. Noctuids are typically nocturnal, though some species are diurnal. Most larvae feed on plant foliage, dead leaves, lichens, and fungi; many are serious forest pests. Some species are leaf miners, others are stem- or leaf-borers, and still others feed at night on plant shoots. Noctuid moths pupate in cells in soil, in plant cavities, or in silk cocoons.